The Chinese Human Rights Reader:

Chronological Table of Contents

We here list the sixty-three essays, declarations, and speeches that are contained in the Reader. Each entry contains a link to the individual introduction for that text, and also to the Chinese original text where available.

1900-11 <> 1914-26 <> 1927-37 <> 1937-49 <> 1949-75 <> 1976-86 <> Late 1980s <> 1990s

I. Last years of the Qing dynasty: 1900-1911

Anonymous, On citizens. 1901.

Liang Qichao, On rights consciousness. 1902.

Anonymous, On rights. 1903.

Zhinazi, The people’s legal right to freedom. 1903.

Zou Rong, The revolutionary army. 1903.

Liu Shipei, Textbook on ethics. 1905.

Xu Yucheng, First speech of Miss Xu Yucheng from Jinkui to the women’s world. 1907.

Ma Weilong, If the citizens want to rid themselves of the evils of autocracy, they must have political power. 1908.

II. The New Culture Movement, May Fourth, and the Twenties, 1914-1926

Zhang Shizhao, Self-awareness. 1914.

Chen Duxiu, The French and modern civilization. 1915.

-----, The constitution and confucianism. 1916.

Li Dazhao, The constitution and freedom of thought, 1916

Gao Yihan, The state is not the final end of life. 1915.

Hu Shi, Li Dazhao, Gao Yihan et al, Manifesto of the struggle for freedom. 1920.

Tan Mingqian, The spirit of contemporary democracy. 1920.

Gao Yihan, The question of people’s rights in the provincial constitutions. 1921.

Liang Shuming, Eastern and western cultures and their philosophies. 1921.

Sun Yatsen, The principle of people’s power. 1924.

Anonymous, Foreword to the magazine Renquan. 1925.

Part III. The Nanjing Decade: 1927–1937

Zhou Fohai, The Basis and Particulars of the Principle of People’s Rights. 1928.
Hu Shi, Human Rights and the Provisional Constitution. 1929.
Luo Longji, On Human Rights. 1929.
Peng Kang, The New Culture Movement and the Human Rights Movement. 1931.
Wu Jingxiong, Two Excerpts. 1933 and 1936.
Qiu Hanping, A Discussion of Constitutional Stipulations Concerning the People’s Rights. 1933.
China League for the Protection of Civil Rights, Manifestos of the China League for the Protection of Civil Rights. 1932 and 1933.
Hu Shi, The Protection of Civil Rights. 1933.

Part IV. War with Japan and Civil War: 1937–1949

Provincial Council of Shandong Province, The Human Rights Protection Regulations of Shandong Province. 1940.
Mao Zedong, On Policy. 1940.
Zhou Jingwen, The Program of the Human Rights Movement. 1941.
Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang), Human Rights Are the Basis of Constitutionalism. 1946.
China Democratic League, Proclamation on the Current State of Political Affairs. 1947.
P.C. Chang (Zhang Pengjun), Chinese Statements During Deliberations on the UDHR. 1948.

Part V. 1949–1975

Pu Zhongwen, He Shifen, and Feng Guojiang, Rightist Statements. 1957.
Zuo Ai, A Discussion of “Human Dignity”. 1957.
Yin Haiguang, Do You Want to Be a Human Being? 1958.
Qian Si, A Criticism of the Views of Bourgeois International Law on the Question of Population. 1960.

Part VI. 1976–1986, Including the Democracy Wall Movement

Mab Huang, An Initial Inquiry into the Contemporary Theory of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. 1976.
Wei Jingsheng, Human Rights, Equality, and Democracy. 1979.
China Human Rights League, A Chinese Declaration of Human Rights: Nineteen Points. 1978.
Yu Fan, Problems in Chinese Society: Questions and Answers. 1979.
Du Guo, A Rebuttal to the Critique of “Human Rights”. 1979.
Xiao Weiyun, Luo Haocai, and Wu Xieying, How Marxism Views the Human Rights Question. 1979.
Lan Ying, Is “Human Rights” Always a Bourgeois Slogan? A Discussion with Comrade Xiao Weiyun and Others. 1979.
Hang Liwu, Human Relationships, People’s Rights, and Human Rights. 1981.

Part VII. The Late 1980s: Before and After Tiananmen

Xu Bing, The Origin and Historical Development of Human Rights Theory. 1989.
Fang Lizhi, Open Letter to Deng Xiaoping. 1989.
Chinese Human Rights Committee, Declaration of Human Rights. May 1989.
Shi Yun, Who Are the True Defenders of Human Rights? July 1989.

Part VIII. The 1990s

Li Buyun, Human Rights: Three Existential Forms. 1991.
Wei Jingsheng, Prison Letter. 1991.
Information Office of the State Council, White Paper on Human Rights in China. 1991.
Liberal Democratic Party of China, Statement on the Issue of Human Rights in China. 1991.
Zhang Wenxian, Human Rights, Rights, and Collective Rights: An Answer to Comrade Lu Deshan. 1992.
Xia Yong, Human Rights and Chinese Tradition. 1992.
Liu Huaqiu, Vienna Conference Statement. 1993.
Liu Nanlai, Developing Countries and Human Rights. 1994.
Liu Junning, What Are Asian Values?. 1998.
Ding Zilin, Lin Mu, Jing Qisheng, Jiang Peikun, and Wei Xiaotao., Declaration on Civil Rights and Freedoms. 1998.
Hu Ping, Freedom of Speech Is the Foremost Human Right. 1998.
Liu Qing, Moving in the Right Direction: China’s Irreversible Progress Toward Democracy and Human Rights. 1999.
League for the Promotion of a National Human Rights Commission, Taiwan Urgently Needs a National Human Rights Commission. 2000.
Chen Shuibian, Address by President Chen Shuibian on the Occasion of Establishing the President’s Advisory Group on Human Rights. 2000.

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Last update: 5/9/02
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